Annotated Biography

This bibliography focuses on the origin of covid-19 itself rather than the conspiracy to cover that up. Bolded entries are more important.

[Andersen20a] Private correspondence with Anthony Fauci and JeremyFarrar
“[We] all find the genome inconsistent with evolutionary theory.” I.e. that it has characteristics that looks like it was man made, probably the novel Furin cleavage site.

[Bionow]Biosafety Now
Lobby site for better biosafety. Some links to Covid-19.

[Bisbo22] Bisbo
How 3 Indians cracked the Wuhan Code and exposed the origins of Covid-19
Extremely cheesy but surprisingly accurate summary of the evidence for Covid-19.

[Bloom21a] Jesse Bloom
Recovery of Deleted Deep Sequencing Data Sheds More Light on the Early Wuhan SARS-CoV-2 EpidemicRecovery of Deleted Deep Sequencing Data Sheds More Light on the Early Wuhan SARS-CoV-2 Epidemic
Bloom recovered early SARS-CoV-2 sequences from a paper after they had been deleted from the Sequence Read Archive (SRA). These early sequences were closer to known bat viruses than the seafood market samples. Certainly the market sequences are not representative of all SARS-CoV-2 in Wuhan early in the epidemic. NIH asked Bloom to delete his data.

[Bostickson21] Billy Bostickson, Gilles Demaneuf, January 2021.
An investigation into the WIV databases that were taken offline
Detailed analysis of what was in the database, when it was removed, and (dubious) reasons given for the removal.

[Bruttel21] Washburne Bruttel, VanDongen
Endonuclease fingerprint indicates a synthetic origin of SARS-CoV-2
Paper that shows the very unusual evenly spaced Bsal/BsmBl restriction sites in SARS-CoV-2 that suggest the virus was engineered.

[Butler15] Declan Butler November 2015
Engineered bat virus stirs debate over risky research Nature
Pre-Covid-19 discussions of the risk of gain of function research.

[Carl21] Steven Carl, January 2021. 
A Bayesian analysis concludes beyond a reasonable doubt that SARS-CoV-2 is not a natural zoonosis but instead is laboratory derived
Long paper that analyzes much of the evidence.

[Calisher20] Charles Calisher et. al. February 2020 in The Lancet
Statement in support of the scientists, public health professionals, and medical professionals of China combating COVID-19
Very influential letter condemning “conspiracy theories” and calling the lab leak “rumors and misinformation” but without argument. It was organized by Peter Daszak, chair of the Eco Health Alliance that partially funded the Wuhan Institute of Virology. Daszak claimed “no competing interests” which was not redacted by the Lancet until June 2021.

[Cambridge21] Cambridge Working Group
Consensus Statement on the Creation of Potential Pandemic Pathogens (PPPs)
Over three hundred scientists raising concerns about Gain of Function research.

[CCDC20] Chinese Center for Disease Control
Strengthening the Management of Science and Technology
Gag order issued 25 February 2020 formally instructing all scientists to cease all work and publication on Covid-19 without approval. There was also an internal censorship memo around 4 January 2020.

[Chan21] Alina Chan
A response to “The Origins of SARS-CoV-2: A Critical Review”
A detailed technical rebuttal of [Holmes21]. It shows the weakness in geographical arguments by examining other known lab leaks. It also details how the sources for the earlier SARS-1 epidemic were found very quickly.

[Chan22a] Alina Chan Critical review of [Worobey22]
This deserves a proper short paper, not just twitter!

[Chan22b] Andersen’s threat over Chan’s critique of [Worobey22]
A tweet like that from a senior researcher like Andersen is a serious threat, and totally unreasonable.

[Chan22c] Alina Chan
Evidence for a natural origin of Covid-19 no longer dispositive after scientific peer review
Notes that WHO report says early sampling was focused on the market area, so unsurprising that that was were they found cases. (It was already widely spread throughout Wuhan by late December.) Also that Worobey ignores [Goa22] that no animals were infected. And that Wuhan area had no bats with SARS-2 like viruses.
Linage A&B only separate by 2 mutations. About 5% chance of mutation per person infected. Diamond Princess cruise ship produced 5 mutations in three weeks.

[Chan22d] Alina Chan The evidence for a natural vs lab origin of Covid-19
Summary of all the evidence.

[Comer22]James Comer, Republican oversight committee
Letter requesting access to redacted emails.
This contains important notes about the communications between Fauci and senior scientists that had said a lab leak was likely, and then radically changed.

[Courtier22]VirginieCourtier-Orgogozo, Francisco Ribera
SARS-CoV-2 infection at the Huanan seafood market
Very early infections not clustered near animals. Thinks toilets etc. most likely source of spread. No animals infected.

[Csabai21] I. Csabai
Unique SARS-CoV-2 variant found in public sequence data of Antarctic soil samples collected in 2018-2019
Samples were contaminated in China with early SARS-2 like fragments. May possibly be ancestral to SARS-2.

[Daszak16] Peter Daszak discussing their Gain of Function research. Recorded 2016.
Succinct extract of Daszak video explaining why he was funding research into collecting wild coronaviruses and engineering their spike proteins to see if they would become pathogenic in people.

[Daszak19] Peter Daszak on This week in Virology.  Recorded 9 December 2019–w
Daszak talks about genetically manipulating Coronaviruses at 28:00.  This was recorded just before the outbreak became known. (Daszak must regret this interview.)

[Deigin20] Yuri Deigin April 2020. 
Lab-Made? SARS-CoV-2 Genealogy Through the Lens of Gain-of-Function Research
An excellent, detailed technical analysis of the virus and of gain of function research.

[Deigin21b] Yuri Deigin, Rossana Segreto July 2021
The genetic structure of SARS-CoV-2 is consistent with both natural or laboratory origin: Response to Tyshkovskiy and Panchin
Refutation of criticism of [Segreto20]

[Deigin21a] Yuri Deigin, Rossana Segreto May 2021 SARS-CoV-2’s claimed natural origin is undermined by issues with genome sequences of its relative strains
Issues with genomes of RaTG13, MP 789 (from pangolins) and RmYN02.

[Drastic21] The DARPA DEFUSE Project
Analysis of leaked DARPA grant application for Gain of Function research at the WIV.

Gain-of-Function: Should supercharging viruses be banned?
Excellent summary of the issue and the evidence. But dances around the lab leak — respectable scientists do not talk about that.

[Eban21] Katherine Eban
The Lab-Leak Theory: Inside the Fight to Uncover COVID-19’s Origins
Good summary of the issues. Endorsed by Dave Franz; An ex-commander of the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases

[Eban22] Katherin Eban, Jeff Kao
COVID-19 Origins: Investigating a “Complex and Grave Situation” Inside a Wuhan Lab
Analysis of Chinese documents suggest that there was a grave situation at the WIV, possibly known even by Xi Jinping.

[Epoch20] Epoch Times Joshua Philipp
Tracking Down the Origin of the Wuhan Coronavirus
First documentary questioning the origin of Covid back in April 2020. Very anti-China, misses the role of western virologists. Some good analysis of data not widely known back then, including the initial outbreak.

[Fox04] Cecil Fox, Simon Wain-Hobson, Joseph Vandepitte
​​The Origins of AIDS (2004)
Excellent review of the compelling evidence of the HIV/OPV theory that HIV was created by virologists Koprowski in a botched polio vaccine trial.

[GainOfFunction] Fun YouTube clips. (If videos about 10 million deaths can be fun.)
Peter Daszak drilling a hole to hell, and selling DEFUSE.
Ralph Baric explaining GoF
Hittler worried about advances by Lab Leakers
Andersen deleting tweets, and the Witches from Macbeth (1:50)
Fauci’s dogs
Fauci the science, the truth
Fauci dancing around the truth

[Gao20] George Gao May 2020
Chinese CDC Director Gao Fu dismissed the Market theory, stating “At first, we assumed the seafood market might have the virus, but now the market is more like a victim. The novel coronavirus had existed long before”

[Gao22] George Gao preprint, see [Liu23]
Surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 in the environment and animal samples of the Huanan Seafood Market
Detailed early analysis by the Chinese CDC. No correlation between positive samples and produce (such as live animals) sold. All positive samples human. No animal samples found positive. Most samples lineage L, not the ancestral S (now known as Lineage B and ancestral A respectively).

[Gilles20] Gilles Demaneuf
Translations of key Chinese articles and blogs about the Covid-19 Outbreak
Translations of many Chinese media articles from the early phase of the outbreak, many of which have since been deleted. Includes documents by Little Mountain Dog

[Gilles22] Gilles Demaneuf
Interactive map of Wuhan with key locations and early cases.

[Giovanni21] Giovanni Apolone et. all
Unexpected detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the prepandemic period in Italy
Evidence that Covid-19 was circulating in Italy as early as September 2019. Validated by a separate institution. If true, this makes the December analysis for Huanan Market origin irrelevant.

[Global21] Global Times June 2021
Scientists close to the Wuhan virologist lab break silence, push away latest conspiracies
Zero workers tested positive for SARS antibodies (despite Covid being widespread throughout Wuhan by then).  (Global Times is a Chinese Communist Party publication.)

[Goodrum22] Goodrum and 156 other virologiests(!)
Virology under the Microscope—a Call for Rational Discourse
Denies lab leak, promotes Gain of Function, Says virology does good in the world.

[Harrison22] Neill Harrision and Jeffrey Sachs
A call for an independent inquiry into the origin of the SARS-CoV-2 virus
Call for more information from the US government archives. Also an excellent analysis of the Furin Cleavage Site. Sachs is chair of the Lancet commission on the origin of Covid-19.

[Hearing23] Select Subcommittee on the Coronavirus Pandemic
Investigating the Origins of COVID-19
Congress / House Hearing with R. Redfield, N. Wade, J. Metzl, P. Auwaerter as witnesses.
Republican Wenstrup: 1:10 — Reviews the evidence.
Democrat Ruiz: 11:48 — No mention of evidence, defence of Biden’s inaction, then vicious attack on the best witness.
Democrats attack Wade as racist and so not to be heard(!).

[Holmes16] Edward C Holmes, Gytis Dudas, Andrew Rambaut, Kristian G Andersen
The evolution of Ebola virus: Insights from the 2013-2016 epidemic
The usual suspects arguing that the West African Ebola outbreak was not a lab leak.

[Holmes21] Andersen, Goldstein, Stephen A; Rasmussen, Angela L; Robertson, David L; Crits-Christoph, Alexander; Wertheim, Joel O; Anthony, Simon J; Barclay, Wendy S; Boni, Maciej F; Doherty, Peter C; Farrar, Jeremy; Geoghegan, Jemma L; Jiang, Xiaowei; Leibowitz, Julian L; Neil, Stuart J D; Skern, Tim; Weiss, Susan R; Worobey, Michael; Andersen, Kristian G; Garry, Robert F; Rambaut, Andrew
The Origins of SARS-CoV-2: A Critical Review
The usual suspects provide detailed arguements that the virus has a natural origin. [Chan21] rebuts this.

[Homesec22] USA Subcomittee on emerging threats and spending oversight.
Revisiting Gain of Function Research: What the pandemic taught us and where do we go from here.
Website with wrong video but witness statements
Richard Ebright (about GoF regulation), Steven Quay (about the origin of covid-19, good summary) and Kevin Esvelt (delaying the next pandemic until we are ready for it) are good. More importantly are the political statements by Margaret Hassan (D-NH) and Rand Paul (R-KY).

[Hooper05] Ed Hooper
The latest scientific evidence strongly supports the OPV theory
Good summary of the evidence that virologist Koprowski created HIV/OPV in a botched vaccine trial.

[Hu17] B. Hu, Zeng, … Z. Shi. 
Discovery of a rich gene pool of bat SARS-related coronaviruses provides new insights into the origin of SARS coronavirus.
Reports creating eight SARS chimeras using the W1V1 backbone and different bat SARS-like spike protein genes.

[Jacobsen21] Rowan Jacobsen (MIT Tech Review)
Inside the risky bat-virus engineering that links America to Wuhan
In 2013, Shi found SHC014, closest to SARS-1, could not culture it. Baric used “reverse genetics” to 3D print it. Baric mixed SHC014 spike with SARS-1 backbone. To make universal vaccine. BSL-3+. Gain of Function definitions. Baric supplied humanized mice to Shi. SARS-1 only spread 1 day after severe symptoms, but kills 10%. 2012, Shi successfully cultured W1V1. Fauci approved all exemptions to GoF. WIV also developed reverse genetics in BSL-2. WIV made 8 chimeras with W1V1 backbone.

[Kaiser19] Jocelyn Kaiser
EXCLUSIVE: Controversial experiments that could make bird flu more risky poised to resume
Discussion of how Fouchier and Kawaoka did first Gain of Function in 2011 making H5N1 bird flu spread between ferrets. This lead to a pause, which was then lifted. Also 2011

[Husseini22] Husseini, Sam, Latham, Jonathan
Did West Africa’s Ebola Outbreak of 2014 Have a Lab Origin?
Detailed if tedious paper showing that the Ebola was lab related, by no less than Andersen et. al.

[Kaiser22] Jocelyn Kaiser
Was a study that created a hybrid COVID-19 virus too risky?
Boston University recently added the spike protein of SARS-2 Omicron with the first variant and “successfully” produced a new virus that was far more virulent.

[Keita22] Alpha Keita et. al.
Resurgence of Ebola virus in 2021 in Guinea suggests a new paradigm for outbreaks
A second more more recent lab leak?? Good temporal divergence graph.

[Kopp22a]Emily Kopp FOIA reveals another secret call on COVID’s origin. The details are redacted.
Summary of FOIed emails by US Right To Know group.

[Kopp22b]Emily Kopp
Virologist who tried to discredit the lab leak theory was once a ‘partner’ to EcoHealth Alliance
Ian Lipkin, coauthor or key Proximal Origins paper [Andersen20], did not reveal serious conflict of interest working with WIV.

[Kopp22c]Emily Kopp
Timeline: The proximal origin of SARS-CoV-2
Detailed updated timeline of what we know of how this very dubious paper [Andersen20] was created, and how opinions changed for no apparent reason.

[Kirchgaessner21] Stephanie Kirchgaessner et. al. April 2020
China clamping down on coronavirus research, deleted pages suggest
Publications of documents about the source of SARS-COV-2 have been removed from university web sites.

[Kumar21] Sudhir Kumar et. al.
An Evolutionary Portrait of the Progenitor SARS-CoV-2 and Its Dominant Offshoots in COVID-19 Pandemic
Seminal work using Mutational Order Analysis (MOA) to determine the early cases of SARS-2.

[Lancet22] Lancet Commission
The Lancet Commission on lessons for the future from the COVID-19 pandemic
“The proximal origin of SARS-CoV-2 remains unknown. [Possibly] zoonotic spillover from wildlife … or a research-related incident.”s No conclusion. Need to control wildlife trade, plus improved biosafety and biosecurity.

Story of the missing Yanling Huang at 4:13.  Notes 24 December 2019 job posting from the WIV acknowledging a big discovery in human transmissiblity. Also

[Latham20] Jonathan Latham, Allison Wilson. 
A Proposed Origin for SARS-CoV-2 and the COVID-19 Pandemic.
Discovery and analysis of Li’s masters thesis on the sick guano miners.

[Latham22] Johnathan Latham, Allison Willson.
Delete, Deny, and Destroy: Chinese and Western Strategies To Erase COVID’s Origin Are Being Exposed By Independent Research
Very well written critique of [Worobey22] and [Pekar22]. Describes [Kumar22]’s Mutational Order Analysis (MOA) that strongly suggests a single spill over event.

[Liu23] William Liu, et. al. George Gao.
Surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 at the Huanan Seafood Market
Details of sampling performed that show the areas near the wildlife stalls were sampled much more frequently than other areas. This voids Worobey’s anlysis.

[Lui23b] William Liu, et. al. George Gao.
Surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 at the Huanan Seafood Market
Nature paper. “SARS-CoV-2 was detected in 73 environmental samples, but none of the animal samples”.

[Liu20] Liu Caiyu, Leng Shumei, February 2020
Biosafety guideline issued to fix chronic management loopholes at virus labs
Global times (Chinese government paper) talks of improved lab security shortly after the Covid-19 pandemic started.

[Lochlann20] S. Lochlann Jain
The WetNet: What the Oral Polio Vaccine Hypothesis Exposes about Globalized Interspecies Fluid Bonds
Excellent summary of the HIV/OPV issue and the attacks on Hooper.

[Mallapaty21] Smriti Mallapaty September 2021
Did the coronavirus jump from animals to people twice?
Dubious proposal that Lineage A and Lineage B “puts a dagger through the heart” of the lab origin thesis. See [Latham22].

[Malone21] David Malone 2021 Channel 4
Did Covid Leak from a Lab in China
Excellent summary of the key facts about the origin of Covid-19. The most important documentary in a decade. Unfortunately suppressed by management and only shown once and only in the UK.

[Massey22] Steven E Massey; Adrian Jones; Daouyu Zhang; Yuri Deigin; Steven C Quay
Unwarranted exclusion of intermediate lineage A/B SARS-CoV-2 genomes is inconsistent with the two spillover hypothesis of the origin of COVID-19
Rebuttal of [Pekar22]. Pekar just removed inconvenient data.

[Maxmen21] Amy Maxmen, Smriti Mallapay June 2021
The COVID lab-leak hypothesis: what scientists do and don’t know
Not a lab leak because we do not know exactly how it was made.  Evidence not discussed.  No mention of sick miners.

[Menachery15] Vineet Menachery, Yount, …, Shi Zhengli, Ralph Bric November 2015. 
A SARS-like cluster of circulating bat coronaviruses shows potential for human emergence.
Paper detailing the creation of a dangerous chimera of the spike SHC014 in a mouse-adapted SARS-CoV backbone/

[Mensendiek23] Hana Mensendiek USRTK
Origins of the 2014-2016 Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa

[Metzl] Origins of SARS-COV-2
Very long detailed discussion of the evidence.

[McDonald21] Jessica McDonald 2021 The Facts – and Gaps – on the Origin of the Coronavirus
Good paper on the evidence, both for and against a lab leak.

[NHMRC22] Australian NHMRC
Gain-of-Function Research Review: Report
Identified 17 GoF research projects. Asserts strong regulation. Too high level to really know.

[Noyce18] Ryan S. Noyce,Seth Lederman,David H. Evans
Construction of an infectious horsepox virus vaccine from chemically synthesized DNA fragments
Ab initio synthesis of the HPXV horsepox virus

[NYTimes22] New Research Points to Wuhan Market as Pandemic Origin
Echo of Worbey’s dubious papers stating that the markets were the source of Covid.

[OSNI21] Office of the Director of National Intelligence
Declassified summary report on the origins of Covid-19
Response to President Biden’s request for information. One agency thinks it was a lab leak with moderated confidence. No useful information, no analysis, no follow up.

[Panda20] Ankit Panda March 2020,
Chinese Foreign Ministry Spokesperson Implies US Military Brought Coronavirus to Wuhan
Chinese government nonsense.

[Paul23] Rand Paul
Rand Paul Directly Confronts Antony Blinken About COVID-19 Research Funding Records
Secretary of State Blinken still refuses to provide non-classified data about research proposals and updates that probably provide evidence for the origin of Covid-19.

[Pekar21] Jonathan Pekar, Michael Worobey et. al.
Timing the SARS-CoV-2 index case in Hubei province
Suggests index case about October 2019. Which argues against the market origin based on data from December, long after the index case. (Pekar and Worobey must regret this paper!) (Other evidence suggests September start.)

[Pekar22] Jonathan Pekar et. al.
The molecular epidemiology of multiple zoonotic orgins of SARS-CoV-2
Proports that lineage A and B must have come from two different spill overs. Main lineage B is (C8782, T28144) while Lineage A is (C8782T, T28144C). Real significance is unclear, other than to make the market origin possible. [Massey22] is a rebuttal.

[Piplani21] Sakshi Piplani, Singh, Winkler, Petrovsky
In silico comparison of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-ACE2 binding affinities across species and implications for virus origin
SARS-2 was better adapted to human ACE2 than any other tested species, from the very beginning.

[Pompeo21] Michael Pompeo January 2021
Ensuring a Transparent, Thorough Investigation of COVID-19’s Origin
Describes sick workers at the WIV, Gain of Function, links to military, call for Chinese transparency.

[Qiu20] Jane Qiu June 2020
How China’s ‘Bat Woman’ Hunted Down Viruses from SARS to the New Coronavirus
Includes disproved claim miners died from fungal infection.

[Quay21] Steven Quay May 2021
An analysis of the results of routine employee testing for SARS-like infections within the WIV and other Wuhan labs raises serious issues about their validity
The title says it all.

[Quay21a] Steven Quay, Daoyu Zhang, Adrian Jones, Yuri Deigin
Nipah virus vector sequences in COVID-19 patient samples sequenced by the Wuhan Institute of Virology
SARS-2 sequences from the Wuhan Institute of Virology were contaminated with artifacts used for engineering Nipa viruses. Nipa is 60% mortal, and if it became airborne would be much more serious than SARS-COV-2. This suggests bioweapons research, and is a significant breach of BSL-4 protocols.

[Quay21b] Steven Quay March 2021
A Bayesian analysis concludes beyond a reasonable doubt that SARS-CoV-2 is not a natural zoonosis but instead is laboratory derived.
For those that like a formal statistical analysis, Quay looks at the probability of each of the known events occurring, and concludes that starting with a 98.8% prior probability that it was not a lab leak, it determined that the likelihood of all of them occurring given a natural zootonic source is 0.2%. Well beyond reasonable doubt.

[Quay22] Steven Quay
Written remarks to accompany the testimony of Steven Quay, MD, PhD
Quay’s written testimony to [Homesec22]. Excellent summary of the case for the origin of covid-19 being a lab leak. Issues with the market hypothesis, pre adaption to humans, furin cleavage site and ORF8 protein.

[Rahalkar20] Monali Rahalkar, Rahul Bahulikar, August 2020, |
The Abnormal Nature of the Fecal Swab Sample used for NGS Analysis of RaTG13 Genome Sequence Imposes a Question on the Correctness of the RaTG13 Sequence

[Rindsberg22] Ashley Rindsberg
How Dick Cheney created Anthony Fauci
Describes how Cheney tasked Fauci in biodefense in the war on terror.

[Rixey22] Charles Rixey
SARS-CoV-2 Origins Research Reference Project – 20220911
Large Bibliography of paper.

[Robertson21] Lori Robertson 2021
The Wuhan Lab and the Gain-of-Function Disagreement

[Rogin21] Josh Rogin 2021,
In 2018, Diplomats Warned of Risky Coronavirus Experiments in a Wuhan Lab. No One Listened.

[Rubio23] US Senate report
A complex and grave situation.

[Sachs22] Jeff D Sachs
Lab Leak Theory: New Evidence?
Important because Sachs was chair of the new Lancet committee on the Origin of Covid. He is very open to the Lab Leak hypothesis.
Also an article calling for transparency. See also [Harrison22].

[Sachs22a] Jeff Sachs interviewed by Current Affairs
Why the Chair of the Lancet’s COVID-19 Commission Thinks The US Government Is Preventing a Real Investigation Into the Pandemic
Furin cleavage site, all USA technology according to Sachs. Needs investigation. “The Labs”. Barely the word “Wuhan”! “you can take a sequence of letters, which defines the genome, you can recreate the virus just from the letters.” Sachs had appointed Daszak to lead the Lancet commission! (before sacking him). Calls for congressional oversight. (Sach’s then closed the commision [Thacker21a]).

[Sachs22b] Jeff Sachs, Alina Chan, Richard Ebright, Emily Kopp
SDSN Webinar: Origins of the COVID-19 Pandemic
Follow up to Lancet Commision. Unsurprisingly no zoonati took Sachs’s invitation to attend.

[Sago22] Scientific Advisory Group for the Origins of Novel Pathogens (SAGO)
Good summary of other known coronaviruses plus animals. Zero analysis of furin cleavage site, activities at the lab. Foggy statement about two spill overs (lineage A & B?). “Cannot know about labs unless China confesses”.

[Saltzburg22] Steven Saltzburg 2022
The US Is Funding A Massive Virus Hunt That Might Cause Another Pandemic. Great Idea!
USAID is spending $128 million to look for novel viruses in the wild that have pandemic potential.

[Sanchez22] Cecilia A. Sánchez et. al. Echo Health Alliance
A strategy to assess spillover risk of bat SARS-related coronaviruses in Southeast Asia
Analysis of where bats and people meet, in order to try to quantify the risk of zootonic transfer. Importantly, Wuhan is in a very low risk area.

[Scaruffi22] Did covid-19 come out of a lab?
Very odd paper that discounts the lab leak hypothesis but then provides a fairly good summary of the evidence. It also discusses the possibility of it originating in a lab outside Wuhan, but without any real evidence.

[Segreto20] Rossana Segreto, Yuri Deigin November 2020
The genetic structure of SARS-CoV-2 does not rule out a laboratory origin
This is a detailed description of the evidence presented in this paper, including many references.  Discusses the Pangolin MP789 spike protein.

[Segreto21] Rossana Segreto, Yuri Deigin et. al. March 2021
Should we discount the laboratory origin of COVID-19?
Excelent technical analysis of the evidence for a non-zootonic source.

[Segreto22] Rossana Segreto
Is SARS-CoV-2 the causative agent of EVALI cases prior to the Covid-19 pandemic?
Paper noting that EVALI and Covid-19 have very similar symptoms.

[Senate22] Senate Committee on Health Education, Labor and Pensions
An Analysis of the Origins of the COVID-19 Pandemic, Interim report
A detailed review of the evidence for both zootonic and lab origin. Considerable detail about the sudden appearance of SARS-CoV-2 vs SARS-1.

[Shi20] Reply to Science Magazine
Shi Zhengli provided a detailed response to questions from Science in early 2020. Shi says in response (5) that no virus was detected in animals at the market. Also confirms that Coronavirus reserach was conducted in BSL-2 and BSL-3 (12). Also at

[Shing20] Shing Hei Zhan, Benjamin E. Deverman, Yujia Alina Chan
SARS-CoV-2 is well adapted for humans. What does this mean for re-emergence?
Sudden emergence of SARS-2, started like SARS-1 looked like after some time, with no precursor.

[Squitieri20] Tom Squitieri June 2020
Did the Military World Games Spread COVID-19?
Dubious claim that the virus actually spread from the October 2019 Wuhan world military games.

[State21] US State Department January 2021
Fact Sheet: Activity at the Wuhan Institute of Virology
Reason to believe WIV researchers became sick.  The WIV performed Gain of Function research.

[State20b] US State Department 2020
An analysis of Circumstantial Evidence for Wuhan Labs as the source of the Coronavirus
Excellent summary of the evidence, written 2020, released March 2022. Examines circumstances including Huang’s disappearance, but does not examine technical evidence such as the furin cleavage site. See also an analysis of this paper at

[Sweeny22] Frank Sweeny COVID-19
Origin Episode 6: Establishing the False Narrative
Good podcast of the detailed evidence of the cover up, opinions of key scientists and the cover up. Reviews controversy about earlier GoF on avian flu. Why key scientists fear the lab leak hypothesis.

[Stoyan] Dietrich Stoyan, Sung Nok Chi
Statistics cannot prove that the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market was the early epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic
Shows that even the statics used in [Worobey22a] are not correct.

[Syed21] Ah Kahn Syed (pseudonym)
How to BLAST your way to the truth about the origins of COVID-19How to BLAST your way to the truth about the origins of COVID-19
Using the NIH’s blast tool to search viral databases. Finds 3 similar overlaps with HIV-1. Also finds the Furin Cleavage site in a pre Covid-19 Moderna patent. Strong evidence.

[Tedros21] Head of the WHO criticizes the report.

[Temmam2] Coronaviruses with a SARS-CoV-2-like receptor-binding domain allowing ACE2-mediated entry into human cells isolated from bats of Indochinese peninsula.
Preprint study that describes BANAL-52 which was found in bats in Laos and is very similar to SARS-CoV-2.

[Thacker21] Paul Thacker 2021
The covid-19 lab leak hypothesis: did the media fall victim to a misinformation campaign?
Overview of the way the scientific media rejected any mention of the lab leak.

[Thacker21a] Paul Thacker 2021
Covid-19: Lancet investigation into origin of pandemic shuts down over bias risk
Jeff Sach’s shuts down a commission run by Daszak. No further investigation happening. Too hard for Lancet.

[Thacker22] Paul Thacker 2022
NIH Tries Sealing Name of Chinese Researcher Attached to Discredited Pandemic Origin Study
Discussion of NIH retracted documents and the removal of sequences from their databases.

[Tucker22] Jeffrey Tucker
The Lab Leak: The Plots and Schemes of Jeremy Farrar, Anthony Fauci, and Francis Collins
Review of Jeremy Farrar’s crazy Spike book focusing on his early very paranoid reaction to the possibility that SARS-2 resulted from a Lab Leak. (Farrar is chair of the Welcome Trust, a major funding body.)

[USRTKBib] US Right To Know, Bibliography
Large bibliography but unannotated. (USRTK have made seveeral FOI requests.)

[Wang05] Ming Wang, Meiying Yan et. al.
SARS-CoV Infection in a Restaurant from Palm Civet
Civets were found as the source of SARS-1 within a couple of months.

[Wang22] Wen Wang et. al. Coronaviruses in wild animals sampled in and around Wuhan at the beginning of COVID-19 emergence
Several coronaviruses were discovered in racoon dogs and bats. However, neither SARS-CoV-2 or its progenitor were found.

[Wain-Hobson21] Simon Wain-Hobson.
New Analysis of DEFUSE Proposal
Casts doubt on the potential usefulness of such gain of function research.

[Wade21] Nicholas Wade May 2021
The origin of COVID: Did people or nature open Pandora’s box at Wuhan?
Widely read article proposing a lab leak theory. Quite good.

[Westergard20] Russel Westergard
Surviving the Outbreak
Says that in mid October 2019 Wuhan was struck what was thought to be an unusually vicious flu season. Schools closed mid December. This would have been Covid-19. Then talks about evacuating the USA staff.

[WHO04] WHO July 2004
Investigation into China’s recent SARS outbreak yields important lessons for global public health
Detailed investigation of lab leak of SARS virus from National Institute of Virology in Beijing.

[WHO21] WHO March 2021 Origins of the SARS-CoV-2 virus
The dubious World Health Organization report.

[WHO21a] Annex to Origins of the SARS-CoV-2 virus
P125 “30 Dec … City wide screening … and exposure with Huanan market.” “31 Dec coninuted serveillance of several hospitals close to Huanan market…” Also P126 a third of all early cases not associated with the market.

[Willman22] David Willman and Madison Muller
A Science in the Shadows
The dangers of GoF. Brief mention of Covid. Strong mention of the Erasmus bird flu GoF. In the Washington Post!

[Worobey04] Michael Worobey, … Andrew Rambaut …
Contaminated polio vaccine theory refuted
Usual suspects arguing against HIV/OPV, despite overwhelming evidence.

[Worobey21] Dissecting the early COVID-19 cases in Wuhan
Says that the fact that many early cases were not linked to the market does not rule the market out.

[Worobey22] Michael Worobey, Rasmussen, Pekar, Andersen et. al.
The Huanan market was the epicenter of SARS-CoV-2 emergence
Influential preprint that that makes the dubious argument that because the “wet” market was a super spreader it must have been the been the source. Claims “Dispositive” (irrefutable) evidence market is source. Heavily criticized by [Latham22] and [Chan22b] and [Zhang22].
Reported by New York Times and echoed by the world’s press. Authors are the usual suspects.

[Worobey22a] Michael Worobey et. al.
The Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market in Wuhan was the early epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic
Heavily modified version of the preprint [Worobey22], no longer claiming “Dispositive Evidence”, admitting “insufficient evidence to define upstream events”. Still fails to mention that no animals at the market were found to be positive, nor that all environmental samples were human. See [Yong22].

[Yong22] Shin Jie Yong
New Covid-19 Origin Data Are Highly Flawed And Don’t Solve Anything
Another rebuttal of [Worobey22a]. Clear description of issues with geo mapping and linage analysis.

[Zhang20] Daoyu Zhang August 2020, Anomalies in BatCoV/RaTG13 sequencing and provenance
Zhang argues that RaTG13 was created in cell cultures.

[Zhang22] Zhang Daoyu et. al.
Zoonosis at the Huanan Seafood Market: A Critique
Detailed re-analysis of the [Worobey22] paper that shows that the cases in the market were actually clustered around the toilets, and not the wildlife vendors.

[Guo-ping07] Guo-ping Zhao
SARS molecular epidemiology: a Chinese fairy tale of controlling an emerging zoonotic disease in the genomics era
Detailed analysis of the SARS-1 epidemic. In particular it shows the early phase where the virus slowly adapted to humans.

[Zhou20] Peng Zhou et al.
Addendum: A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin
Zhou of the WIV admitting to having studied 9 SARS coronavirus samples after evidence for them found by others. (Only one, RATG13 has been published.)